Presented here are various videos found on YT.  You don’t have to believe every word but let the seeds take root.  Tell me what kind of information would you like to see more orf?  So much has been written and produced on Pythagorean Illuminism, not to be mistaken for Evil Illuminists who have corrupted the very topic meant to liberate people from all their imposed control systems.


“Mind and matter together constitute COMPLETE ontological reality. They constitute COMPLETE MATHEMATICS. Scientific Materialism is a subset of Illuminism because it is incomplete mathematics whereas Illuminism is complete mathematics. That’s the world in a nutshell. It’s all in the math!”


“The Illuminati is an ancient secret society that seeks to bring about a New World Order based on the principle that everyone has it within them to literally become God.  To seek a higher form of psychic awareness and knowledge is not some medieval blasphemy, it’s our destiny.



Constructing The Universe


Full credit given here to the AC website.  In my younger days I remember enjoying the semi-sarcastic writing of The Subgenius Foundation with their references to the Pink Boys or “normals” that accept all the programming and dogma thrown at them.  One of the quotes of J.R. “Bob” Dobbs was to pull the wool over your own eyes.  In this way you will recognize it when someone else does it to you.  The significance of this only now become realized in the below reference from the Golgonooza page:

–Citizen Pariah


Each of the ten degrees of the Illuminati is associated with a major undertaking that every initiate must successfully complete to demonstrate their merit and their readiness to proceed to the next level. The first degree involves the creation of a plausible new religion. Given that the religion of the Illuminati is Illumination, some initiates are initially perplexed that they should be asked to construct an entirely new religion rather than learn directly about Illumination. So, why is this done?

In simple terms, those who can devise a religion prove that they are capable of understanding Illumination, which is a highly complex religion with no connection whatever with the central Western religious concept of faith. Faith is a means of absolving oneself of having to think deeply about religion. As soon as a difficult theological question arises, the faithful simply say, “We believe”, and the problem magically disappears…or rather is completely ignored and thus soon forgotten.

Faith is deemed to be a trump card that, once invoked, shows the mettle of the faithful and proves that they are fully deserving of divine reward.  The more ridiculous a proposition, the more faith you require, and the more faith you have, the holier you are. Therefore the holiest people on earth are those who believe the most unbelievable things. They could equally well be called the most stupid people on earth. Faith is the greatest con ever devised. In the fairytale The Emperor’s New Clothes, the Emperor strides out stark naked in front his people, believing he is wearing the finest set of clothes ever made. Thus it always is with belief. You are always naked and yet you always image you are fully dressed in the garments of God.


Those who do not subscribe to faith must fully engage their intelligence in their pursuit of enlightenment. Which do you think is easier? Faith is an evasion, a prevarication, a refusal to confront reality. Not to exaggerate, faith is always absurd. Faith isReligion For Dummies, a device for those who can’t think. It’s an insult to intelligence.


The number of faithful is growing enormously in the least developed, least well educated parts of the world (surprise, surprise), while it is in steep decline in the educated “First World”, particularly Europe. America is the only advanced nation that is still heavily mired in faith. Why should that be? Most white Americans are descended from religious fanatics who were expelled from their own countries for their extremist views. Dissenters, Non-Conformists, outcasts, outsiders, cultists, members of secret societies, rebels, revolutionaries, the dispossessed, searchers, dreamers, the rejected, the abandoned, the expelled…they all flocked to the New World where they could begin again, free of persecution. Black Americans became fanatically devoted to faith because it was one way to psychologically cope with the horrors of the slavery and deprivation that the faithful whites had inflicted on them: it offered hope unavailable elsewhere. Thus America has religious diversity (in the form of many different Christian sects), remarkable energy and also an identity founded on both religious fanaticism and religious desperation. In this regards it strongly resembles a Third World nation in its approach to religion.


To formulate a new religion is no simple task. To succeed, you must be aware not just of the teachings of other religions, but also of philosophy, science and psychology. You must be imaginative, creative and intelligent. You must possess a strong vision. You must be bold, daring, willing to travel to dark and difficult places of the mind to find the truth. You must be willing to wrestle with great enigmas and profound mysteries.


If you have embarked on the sacred quest to “become God”, what better way to start than for you to conceive how you would order the universe if it were your personal responsibility i.e. if you yourself were God. What would you ask of human beings? What rules, if any, would you set down? How would you incentivise humanity to follow your message? Would you punish them for failing? Would you make use of prophets to communicate your message? And what is your message? Would you appear in person to humanity? What about the problem of evil? How would you address that oldest of intractable issues? Would your religion be simple, complex, secret, open, faith-based or knowledge-based? Would it be philosophical, psychological, scientific? What would be the central new idea of your religion to distinguish it from others?


Creating your own religion frees you from the shackles of all other religions. It makes you think far more seriously about religion, about the meaning of life and the true nature of existence. It expands your mind, enhances your knowledge, and gives you a true moral sense since you yourself have to define what is right and wrong, good and evil. You no longer rely on others such as rabbis, priests and imams. There is no greater authority on religious matters than you yourself.


No one who creates their own religion can be brainwashed. They will not fall prey to false prophets and be taken in by the lies of “holy” books. They see through them instantly. They see the “con”. Most religions are absurd. It is beyond belief that most are taken seriously. Once you have constructed your own, you understand how the others came into being. You understand what “tricks” they used, what psychological manipulation they deployed, what falsehoods they told, what threats they leveled and incentives they offered. You start to understand that some religions succeeded because of particular historical circumstances. Had those circumstances been marginally different, other religions, or alternative versions of existing religions, would now stand in the place of those we see around us.


For example, the “Jewish” Christianity of Jesus’ brother James the Just might have defeated the Mithraic Christianity of St Paul, in which case Christianity would now resemble Reformed Judaism. If the Arian heresy had succeeded, Christianity would not now proclaim Jesus Christ as God but, instead, as God’s first and greatest creation (a kind of super-angelic being) – and the Christian message would be fundamentally different. If the Church of Simon Magus had triumphed over the Church of Jesus Christ, the dominant religion of the world would be Illumination instead of Christianity. Knowledge (gnosis) would have replaced faith as the means of approaching the divine. East and West would be much closer together since Illumination has far more in common with Hinduism and Buddhism than with the Abrahamic faiths. Islam might never have come into existence. The power of the Demiurge might have been shattered.


In other words, given slightly different historical events, the world would be an entirely different place. Once you understand that, you see how easily these wrong turnings taken by humanity might be remedied. The Abrahamic faiths are not here forever; they are errors that humanity will correct in due course. They are provisional religions, not permanent ones.


A world in which everyone has their own ideas about religion is one that would be without the fanaticism of the “faithful”, without sectarianism and division, without blind belief, brainwashing and mind control. Only when you are free, when you mind has been purged of all the false beliefs of conventional religions, are you capable of turning your mind to the true nature of the divine.


One of the most remarkable members of the Illuminati was the British visionary painter and poet William Blake, a man whose modern status as a genius was sadly absent during his own lifetime when he was commonly regarded as an eccentric crank with little talent. Blake became obsessed with the Illuminati’s task of creating his own religion and ended up devoting most of his life to it, inventing a rich and highly complex personal mythology.


The Illuminati still refer to it to this day as perhaps the most vivid and inspirational attempt to create a new religion.


“I must Create a System or be enslav’d by another Man’s.”

William Blake

If you have been led here, you undoubtedly are already aware of the 2014 block inserted at the Georgia Guide stones.  A few days ago it was removed publicly which tells me they wanted witnesses.  They did the removal during the day when they could use the video cameras at the site to verify tourists were on site with their own video cameras.  The guy removing the block said it was put there by “some idiot”.  This is not the case.  The block follows a specific encoded numerology in which it’s message can be decoded and verified.

Below is a video describing the code and the verification steps taken.  Was their ritual interrupted as the interpreter notes?  I don’t think so, I believe all of this from the intentional alt press updates about the addition of the 2014 block and the subsequent removal were deliberate.  They just desired deniability as the site hasn’t been updated for 34 years.  If it were to be an “official” update resultant questions would be raised.

Is the 10/22/14 - 10/24/14 date message a sign of something nefarious?  Outside of the eclipse and link to solstice dates it’s hard to tell.  The overall message of the stones are not evil in of themselves, it’s how they are interpreted by conspiracy wags looking to pump fear to sell their products.

I believe the below video does correctly interpret the numeralogical aspect and numerology and astrological events have always had significance in esoteric schools and systems.

This video discusses the recent removal and destruction of the recently placed, 20-14 Georgia Guidestone block. The recent public destruction of the coded block, has allowed all 6 sides of the granite block, to be observed and noted.

The markings from all 6 sides are as follows: MM, JAM, 8-14-16-20

This is a 2-4 pattern and thus produces a 24. This number should be noted.

All numbers and letters engraved on the block have been decoded and are discussed in this new report.

Background video.
Georgia Guidestone Cube 20-14 Destroyed on 09-25-14…



If you haven’t already read any of The God Series, I highly recommend all the books.  They are available on Amazon and I don’t make a cent either directly or via a merchant account.  They offer a compelling background and introduction to the Pythagorean Illuminati and their basic tenets.  This series is not for those devout to any branch of Abrahamism, the traditional western Christian views and Islamic and Jewish texts are vilified as emotional pablum.  For those seeking the next level of understanding, where Scientific Materialism is exposed as the subset of ontological mathematics, these books offer a potentially life changing viewpoint.  The God Series can be redundant at times, I believe this is largely to bring the major points to focus as they challenge most all beliefs those in the west are born and conditioned to hold as sacrosanct.  In addition there lies encoded in the books an alleged hidden message for those able to decipher it.  The latest book just published is Book 20, below is an excerpt for review purposes:


We don’t live in a world of faith, we don’t live in world of mysticism, and we don’t live in a world of lifeless, mindless matter. We live in a universe literally made out of mathematical reason, which is exactly why the universe is intelligible. If the universe weren’t made out of reason, it would not be a rational place of order, organisation and pattern. Instead, it would be a place of irrational chaos, a world of things happening for no reason, and with no continuity between events. When people refer to “magic”, they usually mean things happening for reasons unknown to science. Yet, if the universe isn’t made of reason, then it means that all things are in fact happening for no reason. If the universe is made of reason, then rational causation is inbuilt in existence. Everything happens because of specific rational causes (ontological reasons); there are no effects that have no causes. There are no magic processes. There are no random processes. Everything can be rationally explained. The Universe is ruled by the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which is the ontological source of causation. We do not live in a magic universe ruled by magic beings (gods), we live in a mathematical universe ruled by mathematical law.

The world of Mythos – of emotional religions, emotional political and economic systems, emotional stories constructed on the basis of what our senses do or do not reveal to us – is a world of magic, and it’s an entirely false world. There is literally zero truth in Mythos, even though 99.9% of humanity subscribes to one Mythos or another. The world of Truth is the world of anti-magic, of anti-Mythos. The True World is the Logos world. Logos is the Truth and Mythos the Lie. “Magic” is a fraud. It’s all about lies, stories, fakes and falsehood. Religious prophets – such as Moses, Jesus Christ and Mohammed – are the greatest magicians of all, conjuring endless false worlds, false beings and false commandments into “existence”.“God” didn’t make the universe out of nothing. Magicians (prophets) did make God out of nothing. Or out of their fantasy. Or out of their insanity. It’s time for humanity to leave behind Mythos magic. The true “magic” – the only magic that actually works, that actually explains everything – is ontological mathematics.

Elon Musk said, “If you go back a few hundred years, what we take for granted today would seem like magic – being able to talk to people over long distances, to transmit images, flying, accessing vast amounts of data like an oracle. These are all things that would have been considered magic a few hundred years ago.” Hundreds of years from now, when humanity is fully engaged with ontological mathematics and we are on our way to becoming a divine species, we will routinely be doing things that the scientists of today would regard as magic, i.e. as impossible. Ontological mathematics – the subject of Truth – is how we convert the impossible into the possible.

From Anunnaki: Legacy of the Gods


ANUNNAKI WHO’S WHO with illustrations from Anunnaki: Legacy of the Gods







Excerpt from Anunnaki: Legacy of the Gods : Techno-savvy ET Goldminers Who Posed as Divine” by Sasha Lessin, Ph.D. (Anthropology, U.C.L.A.) and Janet Kira Lessin (Professor, School of Ancient Studies)


Second son of genetically enhanced hybrids Adapa and Titi (Enki’s Nibiran/Earthling son and daughter).  Titi bore twins (first, Ka-in; second, Abael) sometime 300,000 – 200,000 years ago at Enki’s lab in Zimbabwe.    

Enlilite Enforcer Ninurta taught Kai-in farming; leading Enkiite, Marduk, taught Abael animal husbandry.  Abael's offering (resented by Ka-in)

Abael’s offering (resented by Ka-in)

  Ka-in killed Abael.




Nibiran.  Enki’s planetary pilot, promoted to interplanetary pilot when Enki fired Anzu. Abgal Commanded the Landing Platform in Lebanon.  There, in the rebellion of the Igigi astronauts, Anzu captured Abgal.  Ninurta rescued him.

Abgal with his eagle helmet Abgal cropped w Eagle helmet       





When Abgal took Enlil into exile in Africa for raping Sud, Abgal, unbeknownst to Enki, showed Enlil where Enki hid Alalu’s missiles. 


Born 2123 B.C, son of Ur’s High Priest.  In 2041, Abraham led Enlil’s forces and defended the Sinai Spaceport.   He reported Sodom and Gomorra sympathetic Nabu and Marduk. In 2024 B.C. Enlil sent Abraham to the Negev Desert while Ninurta and Nergal nuked Sodom and Gomorra.       

On Enlil’s orders, Abraham left his wife Hagar and their son Ishmael to die in the desert and almost stabbed his son Isaac.Abraham Almost Kills Isaac2






Abraham circumcised himself and his men to brand themselves  as Enlil’s.  Enlil rewarded him with Canaan.


Adad ran the Lebanon Landing Place.  In 3800 B.C., Enlil put him in charge of gold and tin works at Tiahuanaco, where, as Viracocha, he “placed his symbol of the forked lightening for all to see from the air and the ocean, on a mountainside on the Bay of Paracas, Peru, the anchorage harbor for ships carrying tin and bronze of Tiahuanaco to the Old World.” [ZS, Lost Realms: 252]




       The first successfully test-tube-conceived and surrogate-carried Nibiran/Erectus Earthling.  He gestated in Chief Medical Officer Ninmah’s womb.  “Adamu learned to speak. His skin was “smooth, dark red,” his hair, black.  Adamu, unlike Nibirans, sported a foreskin.” [ZS, Enki:148,168-170]. 

Adapa, as Enoch, went to Nibiru.

Enoch to Nibiru 2

   Adapa, also known as Utu-Abzu and Enoch, was Enki’s son with an Earthling woman descended, some 300,000 years ago, from Adamu. “To Adapa, Enki himself teachings gave, how to keep records he was him instructing.” Enki boasted, “A Civilized man I have brought forth. A new kind of Earthling from my seed has been created, in my image and after my likeness. From seed they from food will grow, from ewes sheep they will shepherd. Anunnaki and Earthlings henceforth shall be satiated.” 

      Adapa rocketed to Nibiru with Ningishzidda and Dumuzi.  There, Enki’s father, Nibiru’s King Anu, denied Adapa the Nibirans’ extreme longevity and sent him back to Earth to breed and teach his descendants–Earthlings whom Enki enhanced with his seed each generation–to run farms, herds and estates.  Nibirans believed Adapa and his line better servants than the hybrid Earthling miners descended from Adapa’s ancestor, Adamu. [ZS, Enki: 168-170]

High Priestess of Nannar-Sin at his temple in Harran.  Nannar, disgusted at Marduk’s ascendancy, had left Earth for Marsbase.  In 555 BCE, Adapaguppi found a comm-device embedded in some of Nannar’s vestiments.  With this device, she contacted Nannar on the moon and promised him that if he’d back her son Nabuaid as King of Babylon, Sumer and Akkad, she’d get Marduk to endorse him too.  Thus, she told Nannar, she’d affect a truce between Marduk and the Enlilites on the one hand and Nannar, who now represented the Enlilites, on the other.  Nannar returned to Earth and probably eventually became known as “Allah”.

Pharaoh Akhenaten took the Egyptian throne in 1379 BCE as Amenophis IV.  He may’ve been a Conehead, unlike his prececessors.  Pharaohs before Akhenaten descended from Enki-Ptah, Chief Scientist of the Goldmining Expedition from the planet Nibiru to Earth or Enki’s sons Marduk-Ra and Ninghzidda-Thoth.  Representations in stone and clay of Akhenaten’s predecessors depicted them with skulls like ours.  But statues of Akhenaten, his queen Nefertiti and their son Tutankhamen have skulls whose backs–their occipits–elongated like a cone. The added length gave them double both our proportional cranial capacity and the Nibirans’ proportionate skull capacity.  Nothing in the Sumerian literature I’ve seen says anything about the skull elongation. And yet Akhenaten may have been from Nibiru too.  I infer this from the lack of Anunnaki comment on Akhenaten’s cranial anatomy.  Jury’s still out on whether Akhenaten was or was not a Coner.
Akhenaten family

Akhenaten preached that Nibiru’s next nearing would “usher in a time of peace and benevolence to all.” Akhenaten had Egyptians follow his “Star Religion” and worship Nibiru. To escape Ra’s pesky priests, Akhenaten moved Egypt’s capitol from Thebes to Tell-el-Amarna.  Akhenaten built a temple the Pharaoh build at Amara. In the temple, he displayed the ben-ben–which might have been a space capsule with a communication device intact, a remote viewing booth, a holographic display, an actual transporter capacity, or just an object of veneration–from an Nibiran rocket. 

Ra-Marduk’s priests in Thebes drove Akhenaten from office and resumed Egypt’s loyalty to Ra.Akhenaten [ZS, End: 168 – 173]

Nibiran, aka Chronos, Saturn.  450,000 years ago, Alalu killed Nibiru’s King Lahma, took his crown, he said, to nuke the volcanos or mine for gold on Earth to shield Nibiru’s atmosphere.

Alalu on Nibiru's Throne
Alalu on Nibiru’s Throne

       Alalu displaced Anu, Lahma’s heir as King.  Anu served Alalu in exchange for legal succession of Kingship from Alalu to Anu’s son Enki’s son Marduk with Alalu’s daughter, Damkina.  

      Anu deposed Alalu; he out-wrestled him.  So Anu, not Marduk, succeeded Alalu as King of Nibiru. Alalu stole a rocket with nuclear missiles (that later destroyed Sinai and Sumer).        

Anu rocketed to Earth and out-wrestled Alalu again but Alalu then bit off Anu’s penis.  Anu sentenced Alalu to die on Mars.  Chief Medical Officer Ninmah, enroute to Earth, buried Alalu on Mars and memorialized him there in the statue at Cyndonia.   

Here’s how Alalu fits in with the other Anunnaki Royals:
1 Genealogy An thru Alalu and Anu



ANU aNU      

Nibiran.  Anu deposed Alalu as Nibiru’s King and then ran Nibiru as a military dictatorship.        

Anu begat Enki, his eldest, Enlil, his legal heir and daughter Ninmah and sent them and the goldmining expedition to Earth.        

Anu visited Earth 400,000 years ago to set up the Expedition, visited again 300,000 years ago to settle the Nibiran miners’ strike Enki staged to justify mine slaves adapted from the Nibiran Homo Sapien genome with genetic material from Homo Erectus.  

When Anu visited again in 3,800 B.C., he took Inanna, his great granddaughter, as concubine.        

He divided Earth among his descendants.       

Anu believed that the Creator of All, through Galzu, got the Anunnaki to create and save the adapted Earthling race. 









Nibiran.  Alalu’s grandson.        

Enki fired Anzu as interplanetary pilot, though he’d nuked Enki through the asteroids enroute to Earth.        

Anzu stayed with Alalu on Mars while Alalu died.  Ninmah gave Alalu men on Mars to start a station there.        

Anzu stole Enlil’s computer programs, disrupted his communications system and led the astronaut revolt against him.  Enlil’s son Ninurta captured and executed Anzu. 

BANDA  Also called Lugalbanda and King Shorty)


 Banda’s father, Uruk’s King Enmerkar (Utu’s grandson and a Earthling) sent an emissary with message in written Sumerian to the King of Aratta in the Indus Valley.              

Enmerkar demanded Aratta swear feality to Uruk.  But the Arattan couldn’t read Sumerian. After ten years, Enmerkar told Utu to have Nisaba, the astronauts’ scribe, teach him Arattan script.              

When he’d learned it, Enmerkar sent his son Banda to Aratta with a message in Arattan: “Submit or War! ” The Arattan wrote back that he’d prefer trade–Aratta’s precious stones for the MEs [computer programs] of Uruk, or if Enmerkar insisted on war,  one champion of Aratta and one of Uruk could fight to settle the war. “On the way back to Uruk, Banda fell sick; his spirit left him.  On Mount Hurmu was Banda abandoned.    

“Inanna restless and ungratified, for Dumuzi she still mourned.  In Uruk, “A House for Nighttime Pleasure she established.  To this young heroes, on the night of their weddings, with sweet words she lured: long life, a blissful future to them she promised; that her lover Dumuzi was she imagined.”              

But “each one in the morning in her bed was found dead.”  So when Utu revived Banda, Inanna saw Banda as Dumuzi.  “‘Dumuzi, my beloved!’ she called him. To her bed, with flowers bedecked, she lured him.”             

Banda succeeded his father, Enmerkar, as King of Uruk.  Banda married Ninmah’s daughter, Ninsun, who bore Gilgamesh.


Wife of Lu-March (Enki’s foreman before the Deluge) made love with Enki and bore Ziasudra-Noah.

Batanash, Mother of Noah-Ziasudra
Batanash, Mother of Noah-Ziasudra





BAU             Also known as Gula, Bau was Nibiran, the huge youngest Daughter of Nibiru’s King Anu. 








Daughter of Nibiru’s King Alalu.  Damkina wed Enki and bore Marduk, Nannar, Nergal, Gibil, Dumuzi.  She was the surrogate mother for Adamu and Ti-Amat. 


Daughter of Nibiru’s King Alalu.  Damkina wed Enki and bore Marduk, Nannar, Nergal, Gibil, Dumuzi.  She was the surrogate mother for Adamu and Ti-Amat.

Damkina trimmed




       Dumuzi (aka Tammuz, Adonis), a Nibiran born on Earth, youngest son of Enki and Damkina, trained on Nibiru to foster animal husbandry for the Earthlings.       

An Enkiite, Dumuzi betrothed Enlilite Inanna and hoped to bring peace to the Enkiite-Enlilite conflict.  But Marduk told their sister Geshtinanna to seduce Dumuzi, then to say he raped her.  Marduk’s men ran Dumuzi to his death; Inanna mummified him and hoped he’d revive on Nibiru. 


ENKI Enki in Greek versionEnki in Greek version       






Also known as Ea, Nidimmud, Adonai, Poseidon, Yam, Neptune, Aquarius, Ptah, Khnemu, Buzur, Nahash, Hephaestus, Vulcan, Merlin and sometimes, Melchzdek, Enki graphed as entwined serpents.        

Born Anu’s Firstborn Son but not legal heir–that was Enlil–on Nibiru, Enki betrothed sister Ninmah but Anu forbade their marriage when Enlil impregnated her.        

Enki instead married King Alalu’s daughter, Damkina.  They parented Marduk, Alalu’s heir.  When Alalu failed to secure gold to sprinkle over and save Nibiru’s atmosphere, Anu deposed him and Alalu fled to the Persian Gulf on Earth, aimed his nukes at Nibiru, and demanded his throne back.  So, 450,000 years ago, Anu sent Enki to on Earth to pacify father-in-law Alalu.  Enki and his pilot Abgal hid the nuclear missiles Alalu had brought to Earth.       

Anu made Enki, under Enlil’s overall command, master of Basara as well as Chief of Africa, Goldmining Operations and the Seas.        

Ninmah joined Enki and they had many daughters, whom Enki kept impregnating.       

Enki, his son Ningishzidda (whom Enki fathered with Erishkigal) and Ninmah, created our Nibiran/Erectus hybrid ancestors as the solution to a mutiny of Nibiran astronauts working in the South African mines.  Enki fomented the mutiny just to get Enlil to support genetic creation of mine Earthlings to replace the Nibiran astronauts.         Each generation, Enki mated with the prettiest females born to the hybrids; he multiplied the ratio of Nibiran to Erectus genes in our stock.       

He gave his part-Earthling son Ziasudra a computer program that showed Ziasudra how to build the submersible to save his community. 


Enlil as his zodiac avatar, Leo

      A Nibiran, aka Set, Jehovah, Zeus, Jupiter.  Assyrians called Enlil “Ashur;” Jews called him “Yahweh.”       

Legal heir to Anu, Enlil commanded the Earth Goldmining Expedition.       

He fathered Ninurta with his (and Enki’s) sister Ninmah.  Expedition Leaders forced Enlil to marry Sud, whom he’d raped and impregnated.  Enlil and Sud (elevated as his wife to “Ninlil) begat Nannar and Adad.       

Enlil ordered Earthlings drowned in the Deluge (here he’s Yahweh), but let Enki’s line of Earthlings who survived rule Earth for the Expedition.  Enlil murdered thousands of both his rivals’ Earthlings and his own Earthling followers.  

ERESHKIGAL (Allat)      

Ereshkigal, daughter of Nannar and Ningal daughter, was younger sister of Utu and Inanna, parturated on Earth like them.        

Enki, en route to Point Agulhas, impregnated Ereshkigal with Ningishzidda. 


Ereshkigal ran the climatological station at the Point. She married Enki’s son Nergal and ran the station with him.  She killed Inanna to stop her baring a son Nergal’d begat for Dumuzi but Enki revived Inanna. 




  Galzu said he spoke for King Anu and lied to keep Enki, Enlil, Ninmah and their kids on Earth when they’d have left.  Galzu gave Enki a build-a-sub program which Enki put into Ziasudra’s computer.   Ziasudra built the sub and Enki’s son Ninagal guided it through the Deluge to Mt. Ararat.  On Ararat, as per Galzu’s plan, the Nibirans decided to breed Earthlings to support them as gods.  As gods, they’d rule through Ziasudra’s sons would oversee the Earthlings, who would serve the Nibiran royalty as their gods. Anu uncovered Galzu’s ruses to keep the anunnaki fostering nibiran-earthling hybrids. Enki told Anu the dream he had of Galzu.  In the dream, Galzu described an submarine for Ziasudra, Ziasudra’s clan and the villagers who would help build it.  Enki related how, on waking, he found plans for the boat engraved on a stone tablet beside his bed.  “By that was Anu greatly puzzled.  ‘I never sent a secret plenipotentiary to Earth’” said the Nibiran King.       

Enki and Enlil exclaimed, “On account of Galzu Ziasudra and the seed of life were saved. On account of GALZU on Earth we remained.  ‘The day you to Nibiru you return, you shall die‘, so did Galzu to us say.’ 

“Incredulous of that was Anu; ‘the change in cycles [between Earth and Nibiru] indeed havoc did cause, but with elixirs cured it was.’       

” ‘Whose emissary, if not yours was Galzu?’ Enki and Enlil in unison said. ‘Who the Earthlings to save wanted, who on Earth made us stay?’       

“For the Creator of All did Galzu appear. To fashion Earthlings the Creator of All directed us.  To help us preserve them did Galzu to Earth come,” said Ninmah.       

While fates we decreed, the hand of destiny at every step directed,” Anu said.  “The will of the Creator of All is: on Earth and for Earthlings, only emissaries are we. The Earth to the Earthlings belong, to preserve and advance them we were intended. [zs, Enki:271].       

Galzu sent Enlil a dream Marduk would get Mesopotamia.  Galzu, in the dream, told Enlil to order Nibirans on Earth, to let the Earthlings evolve.  Galzu said the Creator wanted Abraham to block Nabu,  Marduk’s son, who agitated against Enlil in Canaan and the Mediterranean ports.  Galzu told Enlil that Abraham must also block Marduk’ advances on the Sinai Spaceport.  Enlil kept his vision secret, but, as Galzu wished, chose Abraham to rule “all the lands from the border of Egypt to the border of Mesopotamia.” [ZS, Wars:289-297]


A Nibiran born on Earth to Enki and Ninmah, Gestinianna became Ningishzidda’s consort.


         Gestinianna reigned over wine and winter; Egyptians considered her a divine dream reader and poet.      To stop Inanna and Dumuzi union, Geshtinianna, at Marduk’s suggestion, seduced their bother Dumuzi, then claimed rape so Marduk’s men could seize Dumuzi.  Dumuzi died from a fall as he ran from Marduk’s agents. 


Gilgamesh’s father, Banda, married Ninsun, a daughter on Enki and Ninmah.  Banda and Nisun begat Gilgamesh.  He  boasted, “I’m three-forths god. (as  genetically-pure Nibirans called themselves). Gilgamesh               

Gilgamesh’s relationship with Inanna, though exciting, left him unsatisfied.  He only slept with her once each year, and only then if he passed the life-jeopardy tantra test of seed-withholding.  Each year, in a ritual for which priests groomed and scented him, Gilgamesh penetrated Inanna, suspended on ropes, 50 times without ejaculating.  If he petered out in this ritual, she’d zap him with her laser.  When he passed the test, she invited him to her bed for a night of more varied sex.   [ZS, King, 43-44]            

The rest of the year, Gilgamesh loosed his lust on Uruk’s brides. He forced any he fancied to couple with him before their husbands could.              

To tame Gilgamesh, Enki, the Anunnaki geneticist, created Enkidu, a powerful man (maybe a cyborg, with mechanical parts as well as Neanderthal genes) to divert Gilgamesh from the brides.               

Enki sent tantric priestess Shambat to tame Enkidu in the woods where he frolicked with antelopes.  When Enkidu learned the joy of tantric lovemaking and decided to join civilization in Uruk, Enkidu challenged Gilbamesh.  They fought, then befriended each other.                

Gilgamesh went with Enkidu to the rocketpad at Baalbek to plead with the gods for a rocket to Nibiru for immortality he thought they enjoyed.                

In Lebanon, near Inanna’s home, Gilgamesh and Enkidu tracked Enlil’s security robot to the launchpad.  As they watched a rocket launch, Inanna, from her plane, saw them smash Enlil’s robot.  “At the entrance to the Cedar Forest its fire-belching monster their way blocked. To pieces it they broke.”                

“Watching Gilgamesh take off his clothes, bathe and groom himself, glorious Ishtar [Inanna] raised an eye at the beauty of Gilgamesh. “Come, Gilgamesh, be thou my lover. Grant me the fruit of thy love.”  But he declined and insulted her.          

She, enraged, demanded Anu release the guard-bull at the launchpad.  Anu complied.  The bull charged Gilgamesh and Enkidu but Gilgamesh stabbed it while Enkidu held it.         

Enlil, enraged that Gilgamesh and Enkidu broke his robo-guard, wanted to kill them both.   Ninsun and Ninmah, however, lobbied the Commander to kill only Enkidu and let Gilgamesh return to Uruk’s throne. Enkidu died and Gilgamesh mourned him.      

Then Gilgamesh went to the spaceport in Sinai for a plant to let him live forever.        

In a tunnel in Sinai he met Enki’s son, Ziusudra-Noah, still alive all these centuries. “Ziusudra to Gilgamesh the secret of longliving he revealed a plant in the garden’s well was growing, Ziusudra and his spouse from getting old it prevented.”  Enki, with Enlil’s permission, said Ziusudra, granted Gilgamesh this plant too. But when Gilgamesh got the plant, a snake snatched it from him.  As a last resort, he begged Enlil to grant him immortality.            

“On Gilgamesh’s deathbed, around 2600 B. C., Utu told him Enlil wouldn’t grant him eternal life.  Gilgamesh is consoled by promises to retain in Nether World the company of ‘his beloved wife, son, concubine, musicians, entertainers, cupbearer, valet, caretakers and palace attendants who served him.’” 

Undertakers brought his body to the royal cemetery of Ur.  They drugged his friends and attendants in his burial chamber, then killed them.  This “accompanied burial” gave “an extraordinary privilege to Gilgamesh, two- thirds of him divine, as compensation for not gaining the immortality of the gods.” [ZS, Encounters: 132 -172; Giants, 311 – 312, 339 (citing S. Kramer’s translation of cuneiform text, The Death of Gilgamesh); King:42-43]


Aka Horon, Hor, and the Falcon God, Horus was the son of Marduk’s son Osiris/Asar and Isis, who impregnated herself with the dead Osiris’ semen.


 In 8970 B.C. Horus won Egypt when he defeated his uncle Seth, Osiris’ murderer, in an air battle above the Sinai.


(aka Irnini, Ishtar, Ashtoreth, Astarte, Annutitum, Aphrodite, Athena, Anat, Venus, Eshdar, Innin, Lillith, Ninni, Kali and Shakti), genetically Nibiran but born on Earth, Inanna’s parents, Ningal and Nannar, begat her and her elder twin Utu.  Offsprings like Inanna, born to Nibirans on Earth matured faster than those born on Nibiru.  Inanna’s growth seemed stunted; she grew to 66 inches height, whereas Nibirans born on the homeplanet usually over 84 inches [ZS, Giants:221]

Inanna visited Nibiru at least once.  She, like many Nibirans, often wore flight goggles or sunglasses to deal with greater sunshine on Earth than on Nibiru.


      Enkiite and Enlilite elders hoped that if Enkiite Dumuzi wed Enlilite Inanna, the deadly rivalry between their lineages would stop.  But Marduk, ruler of Egypt and Babylon, induced Geshtinanna, his sister and also Dumuzi’s to love Dumuzi then yell rape.  Marduk’s security team drove Dumuzi to his death.  She then wanted Dumuzi’s older brother Nergal to impregnate her for Dumuzi.  Nergal’s mate, Inanna’s younger sister Ereshkigal, killed her but Enki sent medical androids who revived her.       

In 8670 B.C. (we tell in Volume 2 of this Anunnaki Series) Inanna helped defeat Marduk and the Enkiites in the Second Pyramid War.  She blasted them with “an explosive beam that tore the enemy apart.”  Inanna demanded Enlil make her Egypt’s ruler in Marduk’s stead, since Marduk caused Dumuzi’s death. But Enlil gave Ningishzidda Egypt.       

Inanna saw Dumuzi in Earthling men she bedded, but usually killed them after sex.       

In 3800 B.C. Anu and Queen Antu, rocketed to Earth.  Antu taught Inanna to channel sexual energy to elevate their whole clan, then gave Inanna to Anu.  As Anu and Inanna coupled, Antu and the Nibiran royals shared their ecstasy, epiphany and satori. Ani gave Inanna the temple where they loved and his survey plane.  She’d run Uruk’s temple through a priest/king, son of her brother Utu with an Earthling.      

Inanna seduced Enki for programs to expand her Uruk temple complex into a city.  She got him drunk, seduced him and he gave her the ME programs.  She slipped them to her pilot to hide in Uruk.  Enki sobered, locked her up at Eridu but couldn’t reclaim the MEs.  “By right the ME s I have obtained, Enki himself placed them in my hand placed them!  So did Inanna to Commander Enlil say; the truth Enki meekly admitted” [ZS, Enki :281].       

In 3760 B. C., Inanna chose the first King of Sumer, the Lugal.  The Lugal represented the gods to the Earthlings.  Lugals shifted their center to Inanna at Uruk, then to Akad.        

In 3450 B.C., Inanna and the Enlilites bombed Marduk’s Launch Tower at Babylon.  The Enlilite Council named the Constellation Twins, after Inanna and Utu and replaced Ninmah with Inanna both as member and as The Maiden [Virgo].       

Inanna appointed an Adapite Hybrid Earthling Shepherd-Chief (descended from Dumuzi) King of Aratta.        

The Igigi Aryans moved east, following Inanna to the Indus Valley.  She shuttled in her plane between Aratta and Uruk.        

In Uruk, “A House for Nighttime Pleasure she established.”        

Her second ruler in Uruk, Enmerkar (Utu’s grandson and an Earthling) sent an emissary to the Arattan King.  Enmerkar sent his son, Banda the Short, to Aratta.  On the way back Banda fell sick, to his death was Banda abandoned” but Inanna’s brother Utu revived him.       

When Banda returned to Uruk, Inanna saw him as Dumuzi. “‘A miracle.  My beloved Dumuzi to me came back!’ she shouted.  In her abode Banda was bathed.  “Dumuzi, my beloved,” she called him. “To her bed, with flowers bedecked, she lured him.”  In the morning Banda still lived. “Inanna shouted: ‘The power of dying in my hands was placed, immortality by me granted.’  Then to call herself a goddess Inanna decided, the Power of Immortality it implied.” [ZS,, Enki: 287-292]      

At Baalbek, Inanna invited Gilgamesh to become her mate, not just couple with her as he did in the annual kingly ritual.  When Gilgamesh declined, “No,”she sicced a mechanical guard-bull attack him.  He, however, killed it and escaped her.       

With her techno-weapons, armies and power (she said) to bestow immortality, Inanna ran kingship of Sumer for 1000 years.  In 2371 B.C., she chose her Earthling half-brother, Akkadian gardener, Sargon (who’d raped her) to lead her armies.  Sargon and Inanna built their capital, Agade, in Akkad (near Babylon). They subdued all Sumer except Lagash, her Uncle Ninurta’s fief.  She led Sargon’s army through Luristan in the Zagros Mountains.  With the army and her mass-killing weapons, she and Sargon united Sumer. They spread spoken and written-on-clay Akkadian all over Sumer and spawned the Semitic languages (including Hebrew and Arabic). [ZS, Heaven & Earth: 95; Wars: 10 – 11].      

In 2316 B.C. in Marduk’s absence, Sargon invaded Babylon. To show disdain for Marduk, Sargon “took away the soil” for Inanna to build a launch site of her own and take interplanetary power. Marduk and Nabu returned from Egypt to Babylon, fortified the city and diverted rivers to it from the other Sumerian cities.  Inanna and Marduk both loosed lasers on each other’s Earthling armies.  Marduk’s minions besieged Sargon. [ZS, Giants: 270 – 274; Heaven and Earth: 97]       

In 2291 B.C. Inanna, Naram-Sin (Sargon’s grandson) and the Akkadian armies captured the Baalbek Landing Platform.  Then they dashed along the Mediterranean coast for the Sinai Spaceport and inland for Mission Control in Jerusalem. The Akkadians crossed the forbidden Forth Region, the region forbidden to Earthlings. Inanna and the Akkadians conquered Jerico, which switched alliance from Nannar to her.  Her armies, under Naram-Sin, joined Nergal’s and conquered Egypt.      

Nergal visited Inanna and asked her to help him contain Marduk and he tricked Marduk to leave Babylon, then took its power source, which controlled irrigation for all Sumer.        

In 2255 B.C., Inanna recaptured Uruk, destroyed Anu’s temple there and sent Naram-Sin to attack Enlil’s minions at Nippur.  She declared herself supreme to even Nibiru’s King Anu.  Enlil sent Ninurta and Ninurta’s cavalry and Gutiums to reconquer Sumer.  They wasted most of Sumer.  Enlil ordered death for Inanna’s strongman, King Naram-Sin, for his attack on Nippur.  Enlil’s agents planted a scorpion to kill the King and ordered Inanna arrested but she fled to Nannar, then flew to Nergal’s Lower Africa.  For seven years, Inanna and Nergal plotted to overthrow the Council.[Ancient text, Queen of all the MEs; ZS, Wars: 254]       

Inanna returned to Sumer, where, in 2095 B.C., Shulgi succeeded Ur Nammu as ruler.  Inanna invited Shulgi to Uruk and declared him “the man for the vulva of Inanna.”  They wed in the temple where Anu’d elevated her in tantric ritual.       

In 689 B C., Enlil sent Inanna to Assyria to disarm the Ninevan army and destroy their weapons.“Esarhaddon rules,” she proclaimed.   In battles in Arabia and in an attack on Marduk’s Egyptian forces, she fired “an intense brilliance” on her helmet to blind enemies of Ashurbanipal (Esarhaddon’s successor).  She “rained flames upon Arabia.” [ZS, Wars 12-19, 276 -279]      

After fallout from the Enlilite nuking of the Enkiite Dead Sea Cities destroyed all life in Sumer, Inanna fled to Anatolia, where, in 1190 B.C., as Aphrodite, she fought on the side of Troy and the Greek Diamedes wounded her.  Virgil said she helped her half-Earthling son Aeneas flee Troy, sojourn in Carthage, settle in Latinum, marry a local and begat descendants.  One of her descendants Numitor, King of Alba Longa begat Rhea, mother of Romulus and Remus whom Julius Caesar claimed as ancestor. 



 Born in 1963 B.C., Jacob, Abraham’s son, ruled Canaan for the Enlilites.  He went to Harran to find a bride, and on the way, saw a Nibiran flying saucer deplane and reboard Enlil and his aides  20 years later, after Jacob’s bride service in Harran for two wives, Enlil sent him back to Canaan.  En route, Jacob wrestled a Nibiran into submission and so was renamed  ISRA-EL [he who fought a god]. Israel limped into his twin brother Esau’s camp, took over as Patriarch of Enlil’s loyalists, known now as “the Children of Isra-El.”  Jacob fathered Joseph, whom Egypt’s Pharoh made Overseer of Egypt.  [ZS, Encounters:250-256]


In 872 B.C., Ithbaal, King of Tyre gave his daughter Jezebel to Ahab, the successor to Omri as King of Israel to create Phoenician-Israeli alliance.

Jezabel, Queen of Israel

 Jehu (Enlil’s agent) purged Ahab’s dynasty and the alliance with Phoenicia and made Israel subject to Syria, which dispersed Israel’s intelligencia throughout the Assyrian empire.


Born, 1870 B.C., son of Israel, Joseph’s half brothers, who hated how he analyzed dreams, sold Joseph into slavery in Egypt. Joseph, jailed as a sexual predator by the slaveowner (Potiphar)’s wife whom he’d refused to bed. 

Joseph and Potiphar's wife1 




In jail, Joseph won fame he when he interpreted dreams.  When Pharaoh Amenemhet III of the Middle Kingdom’s XII dynasty ascended the throne of Egypt in 1842 B.C. and dreamed seven skinny cows ate seven fat cows and seven scorched ears of grain ate seven healthy ones, he told Joseph.  Joseph said Pharaoh’s dream augered seven years good harvest, then seven famine years.  Impressed, in 1840 B.C., Amenemhet made Joseph Overseer of Egypt and let him store water and grain from the seven good years for the seven lean ones.   

           Joseph ran Nile high flood waters into miles of canals and underground pipes to an artificial lake near Hawara.  He made the Fayam area breadbasket of Egypt.  When drought and famine hit the Near East, refugees pored into Egypt where vegetables, fruit and fish still, thanks to Joseph, abounded.  In 1833 B.C., Papa Jacob (now 130 years old) and Joseph’s half-brothers who’d sold him to slave joined the refugees from Canaan to Egypt.


Joshua at Jerico

Joshua at Jerico


When Moses died, his general, Joshua, led the Israelites.  Joshua, whom Enlil told of astronomical events and assisted with techno-weapons, conquered much of Canaan.  Joshua killed 120,000 men and enslaved 200,000 women and children.  Enlil had him kill a million Ethiopians too.  With the weapons and engineered plagues, Enlil and Joshua slew 10,000 Canaanites and Perizzites and 10,000 Moabites. [Judges 1:4, 3:28-29; Tellinger, Slave Species:173 -191]  


Hagar and Ismael banished at Sarah and Enlil's order, to die in the desert

Hagar and Ismael banished at Sarah’s nagging  and Enlil’s order, to die in the desert



 Slave, then secondary wife to Abraham; their son, Ishmael, had been Abraham’s heir but Enlil had Abraham and his son with first wife Sarah begat a child to displace Ishmael.  Enlil ordered Abraham to leave Hagar and Ishmael to die in the desert.   Abraham obeyed but Hagar and Ishmael survived and Ishmael bred the ancestors of the Arabs.


Ka-in was the first son of Adapa and Titi (Enki’s Earthling son and daughter) begat Ka-in, their firstborn eldest twin.  Titi bore the twins, first, Ka-in; second, Abael sometime 300,000 – 200,000 years ago at Enki’s lab in Zimbabwe.  Kai-In killedAbael2     






The Expedition Council banished Ka-In East of Sumer for killing his brother Abael and had Ninghzidda mark Ka-In genetically to lack facial hair. 





Lu-March worked as Enki’s pre-Deluge Workforce Foreman, husband of Batanash with whom Enki begat Ziasudra.  


For a few decades on Nibiru, Marduk (aka Ra, Ra-amon, Amon, Aten, Bilulu, Bel, Nimrod, Ares, Mars), son of Damkina (King Alalu’s daughter) and Enki (Enki was son of Anu, Alalu’s successor), could succeed Alalu.  Until Anu overthrew Alalu, both Anu and Alalu proclaimed Marduk Heir Presumptive.

Marduk as Mars

       Marduk’s father’s brother Enlil (Commander on Earth) gave Marduk rule of the transhipment facility and the Astronaut Corps on Mars.  But 350,000 years ago, Nibiru neared Earth and brimstones rained on Earth and Mars, loosed earthquakes and volcanoes on both planets, trashed Marsbase and forced the Corps to leave it.  So Marduk lost his command.        

Enki took Marduk to the moon. They surveyed the moon as an alternative base.  On the moon Enki gave Marduk vast scientific information.        

Enki told Marduk he’d help him reclaim his right to rule.      

In 9780 B.C.: Enki gave Marduk rule of Egypt and its Earthlings.  Marduk divided Egypt between his sons Seth and Osiris.       

Marduk said he’d marry Sarpanit, a hybrid daughter of Enkime (a direct descendent of one of Enki’s Earthling sex partners).  Marduk’s marriage would bind the Earthlings to him; he’d wield them as weapons, and defeat Enlil on Earth.  Then with armies of Earthlings, he’d reclaim his right as Alalu’s heir to rule Nibiru.        

Enlil let Marduk and Sarpanit proclaim they’d wed at Eridu.  But Enlil ordered the couple, after they wed, to Egypt.         200 Igigi astronauts occupied the Lebanon Airport, then flew to Eridu.  After the wedding, each astronaut seized an Earthling woman.  They took the 200 Earthlings back to Lebanon and radioed Enlil: “Bless our Earthling marriages or by fire all on Earth shall we shall destroy.” Marduk, the astronauts’ Commander, demanded Enlil ratify the unions.  Marduk and Sarpanit stayed with other Igigi families in Lebanon and begat Nabu.              

When Enlil ordered the Indus Valley developed as a dowry for Inanna and Dumuzi, Marduk had his sister Geshtinanna seduce their brother Dumuzi.  After she got his ejaculate, Geshtinanna said,“Marduk of raping me will accuse you.”  Dumuzi drowned as he fled Marduk’s agents.  Inanna chased Marduk through the chambers of the Great Pyramid.  When he came out, the Enlilites convicted him and sentenced him to die. 

But King Anu had Ningishzidda rescue Marduk.  The Enlilites exiled him to North America. In Egypt, they now called Marduk Ra- Amen (Amen = hidden).       

In 8670 B.C., Inanna & the Enlilites again defeated Marduk and his armies.  Marduk and his forces fled to the mountains.  Inanna blasted them with “an explosive beam and forced them south.”  Marduk, Gibil, Seth, Horon and Enki escaped into the Great Pyramid at Giza.  In exchange for a peace treaty, Enki surrendered and replaced Marduk with Ningishzidda as ruler of Egypt.       

In 3850 B.C., Anu inspected the Earth Project, and at the Peruvian Spaceport pardoned Marduk.  Sarpanit had died; Marduk and Nabu moved to Enki’s place in Eridu.  In 3460 B.C.E. Marduk extended Enki’s base in Sumer at Babylon (within Eridu), as his headquarters.”  Marduk had his Earthlings built a “tower whose head shall reach the heavens–a launch tower.       

Nabu gathered Earthlings and Marduk taught them to make bricks for Babylon, his spaceport. With a spaceport, he’d challenge the Enlilite spaceport on the Sinai. But Enlilites bombed the tower and Marduk’s camp at Babylon and he fled to Egypt.  Enlilites scattered Marduk’s Earthlings and gave them different languages and scripts.       

“Marduk, after a long absence, to the Land of the Two Narrows [Egypt] returned, Ningishzidda as its master he there found.”  For the next 350 years, armies Marduk and Nigishzidda clashed over Egypt.  Finally, Enki ordered Ningishzidda to leave Egypt to Marduk. Enki hadn’t passed rule of Nibiru to Marduk, but maybe he could settle Marduk in Egypt.  Enki gave him computer programs to make Egypt prosper; he gave him all his knowledge except how to revive the dead.  Marduk replaced Ningishzidda s image on the Sphinx with Osiris’.  Marduk told his pharaohs he’d mummify and rocket them to Nibiru for eternity with the gods.  He rallied Egypt against the Enilites.       

In 2316 B.C., Sargon and Inanna invaded Babylon, filled an urn with Babylon soil and planted it in Agade, symboling she’d build her own tower to launch rockets to Nibiru.  Marduk returned from Egypt to Babylon.  When Marduk fortified Babylon and diverted rivers to it before they flowed to other Sumerian cities and said he’d build his spaceport in Babylon. Marduk’s waterworks stopped water to Sumer’s Enlilite cities, Inanna loosed lasers on his Earthlings and he shot laser beams at her armies. The Anunnaki Council told Nergal to restore Sumer’s water and disarm Marduk and Babylon.  In Uruk, Nergal allied with Inanna and asked Inanna to help thwart Marduk.  Nergal and Inanna made love and planned to conquer the Earth.       

Nergal and his Africans marched to Babylon, where Marduk greeted them.  Nergal promised Marduk if he’d leave Babylon for South Africa, he’d get weapons–Alalu’s hidden nukes–and computers hidden there.  Marduk said that if he left Babylon, the waterworks would fail, and Sumer’d suffer floods, dried-up crops and cholera. Nergal said he’d respect the waterworksReassured, Marduk went to South Africa.  Then Nergal destroyed the system and created floods, dried-out fields and canals throughout Sumer.       

Marduk took Harran from Nannar and cut Sumer from trade with the Hittites.  Nabu roused the cities west of the Euphrates and Canaan against Enlil.  Marduk and Nabu threatened both the Spaceport. Nergal nuked Marduk’s forces in Canaan.  Nabu escaped westward to an island in the Mediterranean.  The nuclear cloud blew to the Enlilites’ Sumerian turf and killed all Sumer except Marduk’s Babylon.  Marduk made Babylon Capitol of Sumer and, around 2000 B.C., said he was God of the gods.  He renamed Nibiru “Marduk” and created New Years Celebrations there to enact “his” entry into the inner solar system and creation of Earth, then of Earthlings.       

He renamed Mercury, “Nabu.”  Marduk developed a priesthood which studied omens and a horoscope that said effects the planets–and their namesakes–had on Earthlings.  He degraded Sumer’s astronomical observations, compassionate support of citizens, and the status of women. He excluded women from high office and the exercise of art.       

In 587 B.C., forces of Marduk’s Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar overran Enlil’s forces in Jerusalem.  Nebuchadnezzer installed a king there, ordered worship of Marduk.        

In 539 B.C., Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and Marduk welcomed him.  Alexander of Greece, who thought Marduk begat him, took Persia, then Egypt.  In Egypt, Alexander saw Marduk floating in fluid, dead or in suspended animation. 


(1391–1271 B.C.; aka Aminadab, Amenhotep III and Akhenaton). PharaohThothmose I broke the Middle Kingdom promise that Egypt honor “Children” of Israel.  He’d work them to death and stop their breeding.  He “ordered any newborn Israelite male killed at birth.”  In 1513 B.C., to save their newborn, a couple descended from Jacob/Israel laid the boy in a box and floated it down a stream where Thothmose’s daughter bathed.  She named the boy Moses and adopted him.             

“In 1482 B.C. Thothmose III renewed hostilities against Enlilites abroad and the Israelites in Egypt.  Moses, now grown, killed an Egyptian overseer who brutalized Israelites.          

Thothmose III ordered Moses killed, but Moses escaped to Sinai, where he married the daughter of a Midianite priest.             

In 1450 B.C., Amenhotep II, the new Pharaoh, let Moses’ death sentence expire.  Enlil sent Moses back to Egypt to free the Israelites.  Moses tried to scare Amenhotep with magic but Amenhotep resisted and instead ordered Israelites make three times more bricks than before. Enlil hit Egypt with plagues, infestations, cattle diseases, three days of darkness and weather disturbances.  He killed all non-Israelite firstborn children and cows in Egypt.

In 1433 B.C., Amenhotep told the Israelites, Go.  When he thought them caught between the desert’s edge, lakes, then the Red Sea, he sent chariots to re-capture them.  Enlil either used his climate control devises to sweep a path through the Red Sea or showed the Israelites a way to cross.  Egyptians chased them but Enlil let the sea sweep over and drown them.            

For forty years, Enlil guided Moses and the Israelites through the desert to the edge of the Sinai Peninsula and protected them from Amalekites.  Nights, he lit the way with a “fiery beacon.”  Days, he led with a dark cloud.  He fed them and had them kill 3000 of their number who worshiped other Nibirans and 23,000 for sex before they married. [Exodus 32:26-28; Corinthians 10:8].          

Enlil ordered Moses to climb Mt. Sinai then relay demands to the Israelites.  Moses told the Israelites what Enlil wanted.  He gave Moses orders engraved in stone.  Moses, however, in a fit of rage and murder, destroyed the engravings and the Israelites who’d made a golden calf to propitiate Enlil.  Enlil then had Moses engrave another set of rules. Moses  Enlil then landed his rocket atop the mount and, with an amplifier he spoke directly to 600,000 Israelites at the mountain’s base.  They must, he said, reject all other Nibiran gods, not even say their names.   They must spend every seventh day worshiping him and subjugate women and kids, as well as refrain from murder, adultery, theft and false witness.  They must not, he said, crave others’ homes, wives, Earthlings and property.        

For forty days on the peak he either regaled Moses on his spaceship with projections or rocketed him up so he could see and report the Earth was curved–something Earthlings of his day did not know. [DoHerarty, J., Did Enki Give Humans Knowledge? ]          

Enlil then landed his rocket on the mount and, with an amplifier, told, the people what he wanted.  They had to say they’d obey.  He had Moses make a temple and a box (an “Ark of the Covenant”) that sported two gold cherubs) for tablets of his orders.  Above a drawer in the Ark, Moses built a Talk-To-Enlil communicator.  Moses returned to the Israelites, glowed with radiation from Enlil ’s aircraft. 

NAB (Ensag, Nebo)

Nabu, son of Marduk and Earthling Sarpanit ruled Botrsippa, and as his father’s Prophet, recruited agents in the cities south of the Salt Sea for expect Marduk to return from exile in North America and win the Sinai Spaceport.

Ninurta and Nergal nuked the Salt Sea cities sympathetic to Marduk.  They turned the Salt Sea into the Dead Sea.  Nabu escaped the nuclear holocaust to an island in the Mediterranean.              

After the fallout felled the Enlilites of Sumer and Marduk finally ruled there, Nabu returned to his home in Borsippa, Iraq, and visited Marduk in Babylon each year for New Years ceremonies.

ADAD  Adad ran the Lebanon Landing Place.  In 3800 B.C., Enlil put him in charge of gold and tin works at Tiahuanaco, where, as Viracocha, he “placed his symbol of the forked lightening for all to see from the air and the ocean, on a mountainside on the Bay of Paracas, Peru, the anchorage harbor for ships carrying tin and bronze of Tiahuanaco to the Old World.” [ZS, Lost Realms: 252]

NANNAR (Sin, Man-in-the-Moon, Allah)      Earth-born but genetically Nibiran–first legitimate son of Commander Enlil and Ninlil (Enlil had begat his eldest son, Ninurta, with his sister Ninmah).  Nannar’s lover, and then, at her insistence, his wife, was NINGAL, daughter of the Expedition’s Chief Scientist, Enki/Ptah/Adonai with Nibiran Ningikuga, the Goddess of Reeds (ie, building material).  Nannar and Ningal begat the twins Inanna/Ishtar and Utu/Shamash as well as Ereshkigal).  400,000 years ago, Enlil exiled Nannar from Sumer, when Enlil thought Nannar supported the revolt of Anzu and the Astronaut Corps.        

Enlil forgave Nannar and appointed him to rule Ur and develop commerce and currency from Sumer in 8670 B.C.  Nannar, unlike others of Enlil’s lineage, the Enlilites, avoided combat in the wars of the Nibirans on Earth.  Enlil choose him as Ur’s god to signal Earthlings, even in lands Marduk controlled, to worship Nannar and enjoy prosperity with money and credit. [ZS, Giants: 269-70, 278].      

Nannar ruled Ur’s 3rd Dynasty.  His Earthlings adored him. He bred sheep that made Ur “the wool and garment center of the ancient Near East and “developed foreign trade by land and water.”  His half-Earthling/half-Anunnaki staff and their thousands of subject Earthlings built a navigable (and protective) canal to Ur’s two harbors.  The canal separated the temple, palace and offices on one bank from shops and homes on the other bank. On their bank, merchants, craftsmen and laborers occupied multi-storied white houses along broad, straight streets.  [ZS, Wars: 271 -272] 


Nergal-Erra-Pluto, second son of Enki and Damkina, mate of Ereshkigal.  Nergal ruled the south part of Africa.


Nergal turned against his older brother, Marduk and nuked the cities of Canaan allied with Marduk and Marduk’s son Nabu.  Nergal allied with Inanna to conquer Earth. 


Enki’s youngest son with Damkina.  Ninagal piloted Ziasudra’s boat to Mt. Ararrat.



       Nibiran-born Medical Officer, assistant to Ninmah.  Enlil raped but married her; she bore Nannar.



Humanity owes its existence and survival to Ningishzidda, the great architect, geneticist and musician.            

Genetically Nibiran, Ningishzidda birthed on Earth, son of Enki and Ereshkigal. Enki’d seduced Ereshkigal as he took her to run the Climate Station in South Africa. He left her there, pregnant with Ningshzidda.  Enki’s son Nergal married Ereshkigal and sent Ningishzidda to live with Enki.                     

After the Deluge 13,000 years ago, Ningishzidda (as Thoth) built the Sinai Spaceport and the Giza Pyramids to guide rockets to the Spaceport. He built a model pyramid, then the Great Pyramid at the South end of a straight landing line–through the Landing Platform in Lebanon (Baalbek) to Mt. Ararat (Eastern Turkey) in the North.  Ningishzidda installed the power generator, master computer programs and astronavigational equipment in the Great Pyramid and hid records (on indestructable tablets) in secret chambers (Halls of Amenti) under the Pyramid [Doreal, Emerald Tablets:1].            

Ningishzidda also built and was the initial face on the Sphinx. He planned and supervised a castle, temple and fighter-jet hangar for his cousin Ninurta at Lagash.            

Ningishzidda refused to fight for Marduk and Enki in the Second Pyramid War, thoughhe did, when the Council of the Anunnaki, asked, tunnel into and rescue Marduk from the Great Pyramid. Enlilites considered Ningishzidda, though an Enkiite, an ally, since Enlil was, though his mother, Ereshkigal, Ningishzidda’s grandfather. Both Enkiites and Enlilites accepted him, so Enlil, at the Peace Treaty of 8670 B.C., made him ruler of Egypt.            

As Thoth, he ruled the Nile for 1,560 years, from 8670 BC, when Enlil banished Marduk/Ra from Egypt. Enki and Enlil agreed to give Egypt to Ninghishzidda. He ruled through other Anunnaki he put in charge.            

When Marduk returned from exile, he sent armies against Thoth for the next 350 years. Enki/Ptah (their father), in 4350BC, ordered Ningishzidda to leave Egypt to Marduk. So Ningishzidda moved on: he guided the building of Stonehenge in England and New Grange in Ireland.            

In 3113 B.C.,  he shipped Middle Eastern-looking Sumerian and Black African overseers and technicians with him to Mexico and Mesoamerica, where descendants of Ka-in, whom he’d marked with facial hairlessness, called him called Quetzalcoatl, the Winged Serpent. He created the civilization of the Maya. He and his African (Olmec) and Middle-Easterners taught the Maya math, astronomy, calendar calculation and temple-building.              

But Ka-in’s descendents– the “Indians”—revolted. They drove the Africans and Middle-Easterners ever south, finally out of Mesoamerica.  

Ningishzidda as Kukuklan, emerging from his spacecraft, depicted as flying serpent.

Thoth, as Kukuklan now, moved on to South America to assist Enlil’s youngest son, Adad, who was building  observatories, metal-processing plants and a final spaceport atop the Andes. Ningishzidda showed the Earthlings he and his cousin, Enlilite General Adad/Viracocha ruled how to line up with the stars and the signs when Nibiru approached. Atop the Andes, Ningishzidda designed a spaceport and tin and gold-processing plants for Adad. Ningishzidda built planetariums throughout Central America.              

During later ages, Doreal writes, Thoth wrote in the Emerald Tablets, he passed into the bodies of certain men. He left in the Pyramid for those of a future Age of Light. They are imperishable, resistant to all elements, corrosion and acids. In effect, the atomic and cellular structure is fixed, and no change can take place, thus violating the material law of ionization. Upon them are engraved characters in the Ancient, what Doreal calls “Atlantean” language. Hoops of a golden alloy suspended bind the tablets.  


Ninmah (aka Ninharsag, Ninti, Mammi, Hathor, Isis, Athena, Minerva), Nibiran-born, youngest daughter of King Anu.  Ninmah 2 pix     

The King ended her betrothal to her eldest brother, Enki, when she and Enlil, her next brother, begat Ninurta.        

She took female Nibiran Medical Practitioners and grape starts to Sharuppak (Iraq) on Earth.  Enroute, she stopped on Mars where she found Alalu dead.  She revived Anzu, marooned with Alalu.  Her crew made a massive stone monument, a rendering of Alalu, facing the sky, at Cyndonia.  Ninmah left Anzu with 20 men to start Marsbase and flew on to Earth.       

On Earth, she loved Enki and bore him many girls, including both Ninsun, mother of Gilgamesh and Gestinianna, Nishzidda’s consort.  With Enki, and with his son Ningishzidda, Ninmah created us, today’s Earthlings.        

Ninmah tutored Enki’s son Ziasudra, the learned patriarch of Sumer.        

Ninmah voted on the ruling Anunnaki Council, where she repeatedly supported Earthlings.        

On Mount Ararat, Turkey, after the Deluge, 11,000 B.C., Ninmah forced Enlil to spare the Earthlings.  He could govern them, she said, through Ziasudra and his male descendants.        

Enlil gave Ninmah rule of the entire Sinai–Tilmun (Land of Missiles–as neutral turf between his Enlilite lineage and Enki’s.       

In 8670 B.C. Ninmah mediated war between the Enlilite lineage (her son Ninurta’s) and the Enkiites, who were holed up in the Giza Pyramid. Enlil, Enki and Ninurta installed Ninmah in a Sinai palace where Enlil titled her “Ninharsag, Mistress of the Mountainhead.” 


Ninurta (aka Ishum, then Mars; sometimes, Ashur; possibly Indra too) birthed on Nibiru, son out-of-wedlock of Enlil and Ninmah. 

ninurta with multi-headed missile weapon

Ninurta served as Enlil’s heir and second-in-command on Earth and ruled Mesopotamia from Lagash, defeated Anzu and Inanna and inadvertently killed Sumer when he nuked Sinai for the Enlilites. 


Osiris, aka Asar, ruler of Upper Egypt from 8970 B.C. to 9380 B.C, son of Marduk.             

Osiris  married his half sister Isis.  Astronaut Commander Shamgaz, Nephys and Osiris’ brother Seth drugged, killed and dismembered him to win the fertile Upper Egypt fief. 

Isis retrieved Osiris's body parts

Isis impregnated herself with the dead Osiris’s semen and bore Horus, who defeated Seth.             

Marduk, replaced Ningishzidda/Thoth’s visage on the Sphinx with that of Osiris.  

Head Emissary for Anu.  “He carried out missions on  behalf of Anu, conveying Anu’s decisions to the Anunnaki leaders on Earth.  He displayed considerable diplomatic skills.  When Anu was away from Earth, Papsukkal served as an emissary of Ninurta.


Sargon conquers






Inanna’s gardiner, then lover, founded Sumer’s Akkadian Dynasty. In 2371 B.C., she chose her gardiner, Sargon (her Earthling half-brother), who’d raped her to lead her armies. They built their capital, Agade and won all Sumer except Lagash.  Sargon’s army followed Inanna through Luristan in the Zagros Mountains. Sargon spread spoken and written-on-clay Akkadian all over Sumer and spawned the Semitic languages. [ZS, Heaven & Earth: 95; Wars: 10 – 11].            

In 2316 B.C. in Marduk’s absence, Sargon invaded Babylon. To show disdain for Marduk, Sargon “took away the soil” for Inanna to build a launch site of her own and take interplanetary power. Marduk and Nabu returned from Egypt to Babylon, fortified the city and diverted  rivers to it from the other Sumerian cities.  Inanna and Marduk both loosed lasers on each other’s Earthling armies.  Marduk’s minions besieged Sargon. [ZS, Giants: 270 – 274; Heaven and Earth: 97]            

In 2316 B.C., Sargon and Inanna invaded Babylon, filled an urn with Babylon soil and planted it in Agade, symboling she’d build her own tower to launch rockets to Nibiru.             

Inanna stayed beautiful and sexy but Sargon aged and “crumbled into a pathetic drunk who died cursing Inanna.” [Ferguson, “Inanna Returns,” in Heaven and Earth, ZS, Ed.:97]







Sarpanit, daughter of Enkime (a descendent of one of Enki’s Earthling lovers) wed Marduk at Eridu in 3450 B.C..  Her marriage to Marduk and birth of their son, Nabu, showed Marduk’s bond with the Earthlings with whom he planned to defeat Enlil.  After they wed, the astronaut corps took 200 Earthling girls and secured Baalbek’s Landing Platform.       

When Marduk had Dumuzi killed and Inanna and the Enlilite Council sealed Marduk to die in a sealed chamber in the Great Pyramid, Sarpanit got Anu to save Marduk. 



In 11, 000 B.C. in Egypt, Marduk, Sarpanit, and their sons, Seth (aka Satu or Enshag) and Osiris (Asar) sheltered with Marsbase’s Astronaut Commander, Shamgaz.  Osiris and Seth married Shamgaz’s girls, Isis (aka Asra–Ningishzidda’s child with Marduk’s granddaughter). Shamgaz and Seth allied. Osiris married Seth’s half-sister Isis to block Seth fathering heirs to Egypt.  Seth then married Nephys, his full sister.  “The full siblingship of Seth and Neptys disqualified their offspring from rulership. Osiris and Isis lived near Marduk in the northern lowlands of Lower Egypt.  Seth and Nebat settled in southern Upper Egypt’s mountains, near Shamgaz’s villa and the Lebanon Landing Platform.  Shamgaz and Nebat told Seth that while Osiris lived he and the Astronauts would lack good fiefs on Earth.  

SHAMGAZ   (Azazael)

Nibiran; Commander of the Astronaut Corps, Marduk’s ally.  Shamgaz led the astronauts’ capture of Earthling women after Marduk wed Sarpanit at Eridu, forced Enlil to legitimate the captured women as astronauts’ wives.         Shamgaz continued to fight on the side of Marduk and Nabu against Enlil and Enlil’s minions.  SUD-


Ti-Amat–blonde, white and blue-eyed like Nibiran girls–gave part of the genetic material for all us subsequently bred humans. Ningishzidda planted Ti-Amat, as a zygote, a zygote he’d prepared with Adamu’s blood.        

Ningishzidda planted the zygote in Damkina.  When Ti-Amat grew to a viable fetus, Ningishzidda excised her from Damkina.       

When Ti-Amat matured, Ningishzidda put her ova in seven test-tubes.  He planted the prepared ova in the same female Nibiran doctors who’d borne adapted but non-reproducing males. He anesthetized Enki, Ninmah and Ti-Amat.  “From the rib of Enki the life essence he extracted; into the rib of Adamu the life essence he inserted.  From the rib of Ninmah the life essence he extracted; into the rib of Ti-Amat the life essence he inserted.” [ZS, Enki:148]       

Enki, Ninmah and Ningishzidda hid how they’d altered Ti-Amat.  She and Adamu stayed in Enki’s Persian Gulf orchard, while her fetus gestated.  Ti-Amat made leaf-aprons for herself and Adamu.

        Commander Enlil banished T-Amat and Adamu when he saw she and Adamu wore aprons and made Enki confess that Ti-Amat’s fetus would breed.  

      Enki put Adamu and Ti-Amat in an enclosure in Zimbabwe where Ti-Amat bore the twins Kai-in and Abael, then others who, in turn, bred with each other and with Nibirans. 


Enki’s daughter with an Earthling, Titi and her brother (and Enki’s son) Adapa started the line of superslaves, hybrids with enhanced genetic input from Nibiran genes–Enki’s.  200,000 years ago, Titi and Adapa begat Ka-in and Abael in Zimbabwe. 


Enki’s daughter with an Earthling, Titi and her brother (and Enki’s son) Adapa started the line of superslaves, hybrids with enhanced genetic input from Nibiran genes–Enki’s.  200,000 years ago, Titi and Adapa begat Ka-in and Abael in Zimbabwe.

UTU (Aka, Shamash)






Before the Deluge, Utu (aka Sin, Allah), Inanna’s twin, born on Earth to Nannar and Ningal, ran the Astronauts at Sippar.  After the Deluge, he ran Mission Control at Jerusalem.  He retired to Sippar.  Later, he left South America on a rocket for Nibiru. 

ZIASUDRA (Noah)      

Enki impregnated Batanash wife of Lu-March (Enki’s foreman) before the Deluge.  She bore Ziasudra.  Ninmah loved and cared for him.  Enki taught him to read Adapa’s writings. Enki gave Ziasudra plans from Galzu to build a sub.        Commander Enlil chose Ziasudra’s sons Ham, Japhet and Shem to rule us hybrids for the Anunnaki and granted Ziasudra and his wife extreme longevity.       Ziasudra, whom the Anunnaki granted extended life from herbs that grew in a secluded valley in Sinai, bestowed some of these herbs on Gilgamesh.  A “snake” stole the herbs before Gilgamesh could use them to preserve his life.

References click here

CMore on the Gods of Old: Anunnaki: Gods No More by Sasha Lessin, Ph.D. (Anthropology, U.C.L.A.)




HARMONY is a state recognized by great philosophers as the immediate prerequisite of beauty. A compound is termed beautiful only when its parts are in harmonious combination. The world is called beautiful and its Creator is designated the Good because good perforce must act in conformity with its own nature; and good acting according to its own nature is harmony, because the good which it accomplishes is harmonious with the good which it is. Beauty, therefore, is harmony manifesting its own intrinsic nature in the world of form.

The universe is made up of successive gradations of good, these gradations ascending from matter (which is the least degree of good) to spirit (which is the greatest degree of good). In man, his superior nature is the summum bonum. It therefore follows that his highest nature most readily cognizes good because the good external to him in the world is in harmonic ratio with the good present in his soul. What man terms evil is therefore, in common with matter, merely the least degree of its own opposite. The least degree of good presupposes likewise the least degree of harmony and beauty. Thus deformity (evil) is really the least harmonious combination of elements naturally harmonic as individual units. Deformity is unnatural, for, the sum of all things being the Good, it is natural that all things should partake of the Good and be arranged in combinations that are harmonious. Harmony is the manifesting expression of the Will of the eternal Good.


It is highly probable that the Greek initiates gained their knowledge of the philosophic and therapeutic aspects of music from the Egyptians, who, in turn, considered Hermes the founder of the art. According to one legend, this god constructed the first lyre by stretching strings across the concavity of a turtle shell. Both Isis and Osiris were patrons of music and poetry. Plato, in describing the antiquity of these arts among the Egyptians, declared that songs and poetry had existed in Egypt for at least ten thousand years, and that these were of such an exalted and inspiring nature that only gods or godlike men could have composed them. In the Mysteries the lyre was regarded as the secret symbol of the human constitution, the body of the instrument representing the physical form, the strings the nerves, and the musician the spirit. Playing upon the nerves, the spirit thus created the harmonies of normal functioning, which, however, became discords if the nature of man were defiled.

While the early Chinese, Hindus, Persians, Egyptians, Israelites, and Greeks employed both vocal and instrumental music in their religious ceremonials, also to complement their poetry and drama, it remained for Pythagoras to raise the art to its true dignity by demonstrating its mathematical foundation. Although it is said that he himself was not a musician, Pythagoras is now generally credited with the discovery of the diatonic scale. Having first learned the divine theory of music from the priests of the various Mysteries into which he had been accepted, Pythagoras pondered for several years upon the laws governing consonance and dissonance. How he actually solved the problem is unknown, but the following explanation has been invented.

One day while meditating upon the problem of harmony, Pythagoras chanced to pass a brazier’s shop where workmen were pounding out a piece of metal upon an anvil. By noting the variances in pitch between the sounds made by large hammers and those made by smaller implements, and carefully estimating the harmonies and discords resulting from combinations of these sounds, he gained his first clue to the musical intervals of the diatonic scale. He entered the shop, and after carefully examining the tools and making mental note of their weights, returned to his own house and constructed an arm of wood so that it: extended out from the wall of his room. At regular intervals along this arm he attached four cords, all of like composition, size, and weight. To the first of these he attached a twelve-pound weight, to the second a nine-pound weight, to the third an eight-pound weight, and to the fourth a six-pound weight. These different weights corresponded to the sizes of the braziers’ hammers.

Pythagoras thereupon discovered that the first and fourth strings when sounded together produced the harmonic interval of the octave, for doubling the weight had the same effect as halving the string. The tension of the first string being twice that of the fourth string, their ratio was said to be 2:1, or duple. By similar experimentation he ascertained that the first and third string produced the harmony of the diapente, or the interval of the fifth. The tension of the first string being half again as much as that of the third string, their ratio was said to be 3:2, or sesquialter. Likewise the second and fourth strings, having the same ratio as the first and third strings, yielded a diapente harmony. Continuing his investigation, Pythagoras discovered that the first and second strings produced the harmony of the diatessaron, or the interval of the third; and the tension of the first string being a third greater than that of the second string, their ratio was said to be 4:3, or sesquitercian. The third and fourth strings, having the same ratio as the first and second strings, produced another harmony of the diatessaron. According to Iamblichus, the second and third strings had the ratio of 8:9, or epogdoan.

The key to harmonic ratios is hidden in the famous Pythagorean tetractys, or pyramid of dots. The tetractys is made up of the first four numbers–1, 2, 3, and 4–which in their proportions reveal the intervals of the octave, the diapente, and the diatessaron. While the law of harmonic intervals as set forth above is true, it has been subsequently proved that hammers striking metal in the manner

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From Stanley’s The History of Philosophy.

In the Pythagorean concept of the music of the spheres, the interval between the earth and the sphere of the fixed stars was considered to be a diapason–the most perfect harmonic interval. The allowing arrangement is most generally accepted for the musical intervals of the planets between the earth and the sphere of the fixed stars: From the sphere of the earth to the sphere of the moon; one tone; from the sphere of the moon to that of Mercury, one half-tone; from Mercury to Venus, one-half; from Venus to the sun, one and one-half tones; from the sun to Mars, one tone; from Mars to Jupiter, one-half tone; from Jupiter to Saturn, one-half tone; from Saturn to the fixed stars, one-half tone. The sum of these intervals equals the six whole tones of the octave.

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From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

This diagrammatic sector represents the major gradations of energy and substance between elemental earth and absolute unconditioned force. Beginning with the superior, the fifteen graduated spheres descend in the following order: Limitless and Eternal Life; the superior, the middle, and the inferior Empyrean; the seven planets; and the four elements. Energy is symbolized by Fludd as a pyramid with its base upon the concave surface of the superior Empyrean, and substance as another Pyramid with its base upon the convex surface of the sphere (not planet) of earth. These pyramids demonstrate the relative proportions of energy and substance entering into the composition of the fifteen planes of being. It will be noted that the ascending pyramid of substance touches but does not pierce the fifteenth sphere–that of Limitless and Eternal Life. Likewise, the descending pyramid of energy touches but does not pierce the first sphere–the grossest condition of substance. The plane of the sun is denominated the sphere of equality, for here neither energy nor substance predominate. The mundane monochord consists of a hypothetical string stretched from the base of the pyramid of energy to the base of the pyramid of substance.

p. 82

described will not produce the various tones ascribed to them. In all probability, therefore, Pythagoras actually worked out his theory of harmony from the monochord–a contrivance consisting of a single string stretched between two pegs and supplied with movable frets.

To Pythagoras music was one of the dependencies of the divine science of mathematics, and its harmonies were inflexibly controlled by mathematical proportions. The Pythagoreans averred that mathematics demonstrated the exact method by which the good established and maintained its universe. Number therefore preceded harmony, since it was the immutable law that governs all harmonic proportions. After discovering these harmonic ratios, Pythagoras gradually initiated his disciples into this, the supreme arcanum of his Mysteries. He divided the multitudinous parts of creation into a vast number of planes or spheres, to each of which he assigned a tone, a harmonic interval, a number, a name, a color, and a form. He then proceeded to prove the accuracy of his deductions by demonstrating them upon the different planes of intelligence and substance ranging from the most abstract logical premise to the most concrete geometrical solid. From the common agreement of these diversified methods of proof he established the indisputable existence of certain natural laws.

Having once established music as an exact science, Pythagoras applied his newly found law of harmonic intervals to all the phenomena of Nature, even going so far as to demonstrate the harmonic relationship of the planets, constellations, and elements to each other. A notable example of modern corroboration of ancient philosophical reaching is that of the progression of the elements according to harmonic ratios. While making a list of the elements in the ascending order of their atomic weights, John A. Newlands discovered at every eighth element a distinct repetition of properties. This discovery is known as the law of octaves in modern chemistry.

Since they held that harmony must be determined not by the sense perceptions but by reason and mathematics, the Pythagoreans called themselves Canonics, as distinguished from musicians of the Harmonic School, who asserted taste and instinct to be the true normative principles of harmony. Recognizing, however, the profound effect: of music upon the senses and emotions, Pythagoras did not hesitate to influence the mind and body with what he termed “musical medicine.”

Pythagoras evinced such a marked preference for stringed instruments that he even went so far as to warn his disciples against allowing their ears to be defiled by the sounds of flutes or cymbals. He further declared that the soul could be purified from its irrational influences by solemn songs sung to the accompaniment of the lyre. In his investigation of the therapeutic value of harmonics, Pythagoras discovered that the seven modes–or keys–of the Greek system of music had the power to incite or allay the various emotions. It is related that while observing the stars one night he encountered a young man befuddled with strong drink and mad with jealousy who was piling faggots about his mistress’ door with the intention of burning the house. The frenzy of the youth was accentuated by a flutist a short distance away who was playing a tune in the stirring Phrygian mode. Pythagoras induced the musician to change his air to the slow, and rhythmic Spondaic mode, whereupon the intoxicated youth immediately became composed and, gathering up his bundles of wood, returned quietly to his own home.

There is also an account of how Empedocles, a disciple of Pythagoras, by quickly changing the mode of a musical composition he was playing, saved the life of his host, Anchitus, when the latter was threatened with death by the sword of one whose father he had condemned to public execution. It is also known that Esculapius, the Greek physician, cured sciatica and other diseases of the nerves by blowing a loud trumpet in the presence of the patient.

Pythagoras cured many ailments of the spirit, soul, and body by having certain specially prepared musical compositions played in the presence of the sufferer or by personally reciting short selections from such early poets as Hesiod and Homer. In his university at Crotona it was customary for the Pythagoreans to open and to close each day with songs–those in the morning calculated to clear the mind from sleep and inspire it to the activities of the coming day; those in the evening of a mode soothing, relaxing, and conducive to rest. At the vernal equinox, Pythagoras caused his disciples to gather in a circle around one of their number who led them in song and played their accompaniment upon a lyre.

The therapeutic music of Pythagoras is described by Iamblichus thus: “And there are certain melodies devised as remedies against the passions of the soul, and also against despondency and lamentation, which Pythagoras invented as things that afford the greatest assistance in these maladies. And again, he employed other melodies against rage and anger, and against every aberration of the soul. There is also another kind of modulation invented as a remedy against desires.” (See The Life of Pythagoras.)

It is probable that the Pythagoreans recognized a connection between the seven Greek modes and the planets. As an example, Pliny declares that Saturn moves in the Dorian mode and Jupiter in the Phrygian mode. It is also apparent that the temperaments are keyed to the various modes, and the passions likewise. Thus, anger–which is a fiery passion–may be accentuated by a fiery mode or its power neutralized by a watery mode.

The far-reaching effect exercised by music upon the culture of the Greeks is thus summed up by Emil Nauman: “Plato depreciated the notion that music was intended solely to create cheerful and agreeable emotions, maintaining rather that it should inculcate a love of all that is noble, and hatred of all that is mean, and that nothing could more strongly influence man’s innermost feelings than melody and rhythm. Firmly convinced of this, he agreed with Damon of Athens, the musical instructor of Socrates, that the introduction of a new and presumably enervating scale would endanger the future of a whole nation, and that it was not possible to alter a key without shaking the very foundations of the State. Plato affirmed that music which ennobled the mind was of a far higher kind than that which merely appealed to the senses, and he strongly insisted that it was the paramount duty of the Legislature to suppress all music of an effeminate and lascivious character, and to encourage only s that which was pure and dignified; that bold and stirring melodies were for men, gentle and soothing ones for women. From this it is evident that music played a considerable part in the education of the Greek youth. The greatest care was also to be taken in the selection of instrumental music, because the absence of words rendered its signification doubtful, and it was difficult to foresee whether it would exercise upon the people a benign or baneful influence. Popular taste, being always tickled by sensuous and meretricious effects, was to be treated with deserved contempt. (See The History of Music.)

Even today martial music is used with telling effect in times of war, and religious music, while no longer developed in accordance with the ancient theory, still profoundly influences the emotions of the laity.


The most sublime but least known of all the Pythagorean speculations was that of sidereal harmonics. It was said that of all men only Pythagoras heard the music of the spheres. Apparently the Chaldeans were the first people to conceive of the heavenly bodies joining in a cosmic chant as they moved in stately manner across the sky. Job describes a time “when the stars of the morning sang together,” and in The Merchant of Venice the author of the Shakesperian plays

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From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

In this chart is set forth a summary of Fludd’s theory of universal music. The interval between the element of earth and the highest heaven is considered as a double octave, thus showing the two extremes of existence to be in disdiapason harmony. It is signifies that the highest heaven, the sun, and the earth have the same time, the difference being in pitch. The sun is the lower octave of the highest heaven and the earth the lower octave of the sun. The lower octave (Γ to G) comprises that part of the universe in which substance predominate over energy. Its harmonies, therefore, are more gross than those of the higher octave (G to g) wherein energy predominates over substance. “If struck in the more spiritual part,” writes Fludd, “the monochord will give eternal life; if in the more material part, transitory life.” It will be noted that certain elements, planets, and celestial spheres sustain a harmonic ratio to each other, Fludd advanced this as a key to the sympathies and antipathies existing between the various departments of Nature.

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writes: “There’s not the smallest orb which thou behold’st but in his motion like an angel sings.” So little remains, however, of the Pythagorean system of celestial music that it is only possible to approximate his actual theory.

Pythagoras conceived the universe to be an immense monochord, with its single string connected at its upper end to absolute spirit and at its lower end to absolute matter–in other words, a cord stretched between heaven and earth. Counting inward from the circumference of the heavens, Pythagoras, according to some authorities, divided the universe into nine parts; according to others, into twelve parts. The twelvefold system was as follows: The first division was called the empyrean, or the sphere of the fixed stars, and was the dwelling place of the immortals. The second to twelfth divisions were (in order) the spheres of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the sun, Venus, Mercury, and the moon, and fire, air, water, and earth. This arrangement of the seven planets (the sun and moon being regarded as planets in the old astronomy) is identical with the candlestick symbolism of the Jews–the sun in the center as the main stem with three planets on either side of it.

The names given by the Pythagoreans to the various notes of the diatonic scale were, according to Macrobius, derived from an estimation of the velocity and magnitude of the planetary bodies. Each of these gigantic spheres as it rushed endlessly through space was believed to sound a certain tone caused by its continuous displacement of the æthereal diffusion. As these tones were a manifestation of divine order and motion, it must necessarily follow that they partook of the harmony of their own source. “The assertion that the planets in their revolutions round the earth uttered certain sounds differing according to their respective ‘magnitude, celerity and local distance,’ was commonly made by the Greeks. Thus Saturn, the farthest planet, was said to give the gravest note, while the Moon, which is the nearest, gave the sharpest. ‘These sounds of the seven planets, and the sphere of the fixed stars, together with that above us [Antichthon], are the nine Muses, and their joint symphony is called Mnemosyne.’” (See The Canon.)This quotation contains an obscure reference to the ninefold division of the universe previously mentioned.

The Greek initiates also recognized a fundamental relationship between the individual heavens or spheres of the seven planets, and the seven sacred vowels. The first heaven uttered the sound of the sacred vowel Α (Alpha); the second heaven, the sacred vowel Ε (Epsilon); the third, Η (Eta); the fourth, Ι (Iota); the fifth, Ο (Omicron); the sixth, Υ (Upsilon); and the seventh heaven, the sacred vowel Ω (Omega). When these seven heavens sing together they produce a perfect harmony which ascends as an everlasting praise to the throne of the Creator. (See Irenæus’ Against Heresies.) Although not so stated, it is probable that the planetary heavens are to be considered as ascending in the Pythagorean order, beginning with the sphere of the moon, which would be the first heaven.

Many early instruments had seven Strings, and it is generally conceded that Pythagoras was the one who added the eighth string to the lyre of Terpander. The seven strings were always related both to their correspondences in the human body and to the planets. The names of God were also conceived to be formed from combinations of the seven planetary harmonies. The Egyptians confined their sacred songs to the seven primary sounds, forbidding any others to be uttered in their temples. One of their hymns contained the following invocation: “The seven sounding tones praise Thee, the Great God, the ceaseless working Father of the whole universe.” In another the Deity describes Himself thus: “I am the great indestructible lyre of the whole world, attuning the songs of the heavens. (See Nauman’s History of Music.)

The Pythagoreans believed that everything which existed had a voice and that all creatures were eternally singing the praise of the Creator. Man fails to hear these divine melodies because his soul is enmeshed in the illusion of material existence. When he liberates himself from the bondage of the lower world with its sense limitations, the music of the spheres will again be audible as it was in the Golden Age. Harmony recognizes harmony, and when the human soul regains its true estate it will not only hear the celestial choir but also join with it in an everlasting anthem of praise to that Eternal Good controlling the infinite number of parts and conditions of Being.

The Greek Mysteries included in their doctrines a magnificent concept of the relationship existing between music and form. The elements of architecture, for example, were considered as comparable to musical modes and notes, or as having a musical counterpart. Consequently when a building was erected in which a number of these elements were combined, the structure was then likened to a musical chord, which was harmonic only when it fully satisfied the mathematical requirements of harmonic intervals. The realization of this analogy between sound and form led Goethe to declare that “architecture is crystallized music.”

In constructing their temples of initiation, the early priests frequently demonstrated their superior knowledge of the principles underlying the phenomena known as vibration. A considerable part of the Mystery rituals consisted of invocations and intonements, for which purpose special sound chambers were constructed. A word whispered in one of these apartments was so intensified that the reverberations made the entire building sway and be filled with a deafening roar. The very wood and stone used in the erection of these sacred buildings eventually became so thoroughly permeated with the sound vibrations of the religious ceremonies that when struck they would reproduce the same tones thus repeatedly impressed into their substances by the rituals.

Every element in Nature has its individual keynote. If these elements are combined in a composite structure the result is a chord that, if sounded, will disintegrate the compound into its integral parts. Likewise each individual has a keynote that, if sounded, will destroy him. The allegory of the walls of Jericho falling when the trumpets of Israel were sounded is undoubtedly intended to set forth the arcane significance of individual keynote or vibration.


“Light,” writes Edwin D. Babbitt, “reveals the glories of the external world and yet is the most glorious of them all. It gives beauty, reveals beauty and is itself most beautiful. It is the analyzer, the truth-teller and the exposer of shams, for it shows things as they are. Its infinite streams measure off the universe and flow into our telescopes from stars which are quintillions of miles distant. On the other hand it descends to objects inconceivably small, and reveals through the microscope objects fifty millions of times less than can be seen by the naked eye. Like all other fine forces, its movement is wonderfully soft, yet penetrating and powerful. Without its vivifying influence, vegetable, animal, and human life must immediately perish from the earth, and general ruin take place. We shall do well, then, to consider this potential and beautiful principle of light and its component colors, for the more deeply we penetrate into its inner laws, the more will it present itself as a marvelous storehouse of power to vitalize, heal, refine, and delight mankind.” (See The Principles of Light and Color.)

Since light is the basic physical manifestation of life, bathing all creation in its radiance, it is highly important to realize, in part at least, the subtle nature of this divine substance. That which is called light is actually a rate of vibration causing certain reactions upon the optic nerve. Few realize how they are walled in by the limitations

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From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

In this diagram two interpenetrating pyramids are again employed, one of which represents fire and the other earth. It is demonstrated according to the law of elemental harmony that fire does not enter into the composition of earth nor earth into the composition of fire. The figures on the chart disclose the harmonic relationships existing between the four primary elements according to both Fludd and the Pythagoreans. Earth consists of four parts of its own nature; water of three parts of earth and one part of fire. The sphere of equality is a hypothetical point where there is an equilibrium of two parts of earth and two parts of fire. Air is composed of three parts of fire and one part of earth; fire, of four parts of its own nature. Thus earth and water bear to each other the ratio of 4 to 3, or the diatessaron harmony, and water and the sphere of equality the ratio of 3 to 2, or the diapente harmony. Fire and air also bear to each other the ratio of 4 to 3, or the diatessaron harmony, and air and the sphere of equality the ratio of 3 to 2, or the diapente harmony. As the sum of a diatessaron and a diapente equals a diapason, or octave, it is evident that both the sphere of fire and the sphere of earth are in diapason harmony with the sphere of equality, and also that fire and earth are in disdiapason harmony with each other.

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of the sense perceptions. Not only is there a great deal more to light than anyone has ever seen but there are also unknown forms of light which no optical equipment will ever register. There are unnumbered colors which cannot be seen, as well as sounds which cannot be heard, odors which cannot be smelt, flavors which cannot be tasted, and substances which cannot be felt. Man is thus surrounded by a supersensible universe of which he knows nothing because the centers of sense perception within himself have not been developed sufficiently to respond to the subtler rates of vibration of which that universe is composed.

Among both civilized and savage peoples color has been accepted as a natural language in which to couch their religious and philosophical doctrines. The ancient city of Ecbatana as described by Herodotus, its seven walls colored according to the seven planets, revealed the knowledge of this subject possessed by the Persian Magi. The famous zikkurat or astronomical tower of the god Nebo at Borsippa ascended in seven great steps or stages, each step being painted in the key color of one of the planetary bodies. (See Lenormant’s Chaldean Magic.) It is thus evident that the Babylonians were familiar with the concept of the spectrum in its relation to the seven Creative Gods or Powers. In India, one of the Mogul emperors caused a fountain to be made with seven levels. The water pouring down the sides through specially arranged channels changed color as it descended, passing sequentially through all shades of the spectrum. In Tibet, color is employed by the native artists to express various moods. L. Austine Waddell, writing of Northern Buddhist art, notes that in Tibetan mythology “White and yellow complexions usually typify mild moods, while the red, blue, and black belong to fierce forms, though sometimes light blue, as indicating the sky, means merely celestial. Generally the gods are pictured white, goblins red, and devils black, like their European relative.” (See The Buddhism of Tibet.)

In Meno, Plato, speaking through Socrates, describes color as “an effluence of form, commensurate with sight, and sensible.” In Theætetus he discourses more at length on the subject thus: “Let us carry out the principle which has just been affirmed, that nothing is self-existent, and then we shall see that every color, white, black, and every other color, arises out of the eye meeting the appropriate motion, and that what we term the substance of each color is neither the active nor the passive element, but something which passes between them, and is peculiar to each percipient; are you certain that the several colors appear to every animal–say a dog–as they appear to you?”

In the Pythagorean tetractys–the supreme symbol of universal forces and processes–are set forth the theories of the Greeks concerning color and music. The first three dots represent the threefold White Light, which is the Godhead containing potentially all sound and color. The remaining seven dots are the colors of the spectrum and the notes of the musical scale. The colors and tones are the active creative powers which, emanating from the First Cause, establish the universe. The seven are divided into two groups, one containing three powers and the other four a relationship also shown in the tetractys. The higher group–that of three–becomes the spiritual nature of the created universe; the lower group–that of four–manifests as the irrational sphere, or inferior world.

In the Mysteries the seven Logi, or Creative Lords, are shown as streams of force issuing from the mouth of the Eternal One. This signifies the spectrum being extracted from the white light of the Supreme Deity. The seven Creators, or Fabricators, of the inferior spheres were called by the Jews the Elohim. By the Egyptians they were referred to as the Builders (sometimes as the Governors) and are depicted with great knives in their hands with which they carved the universe from its primordial substance. Worship of the planets is based upon their acceptation as the cosmic embodiments of the seven creative attributes of God. The Lords of the planets were described as dwelling within the body of the sun, for the true nature of the sun, being analogous to the white light, contains the seeds of all the tone and color potencies which it manifests.

There are numerous arbitrary arrangements setting forth the mutual relationships of the planets, the colors, and the musical notes. The most satisfactory system is that based upon the law of the octave. The sense of hearing has a much wider scope than that of sight, for whereas the ear can register from nine to eleven octaves of sound the eye is restricted to the cognition of but seven fundamental color tones, or one tone short of the octave. Red, when posited as the lowest color tone in the scale of chromatics, thus corresponds to do, the first note of the musical scale. Continuing the analogy, orange corresponds to re, yellow to mi, green to fa, blue to sol, indigo to la, and violet to si (ti). The eighth color tone necessary to complete the scale should be the higher octave of red, the first color tone. The accuracy of the above arrangement is attested by two striking facts: (1) the three fundamental notes of the musical scale–the first, the third, and the fifth–correspond with the three primary colors–red, yellow, and blue; (2) the seventh, and least perfect, note of the musical scale corresponds with purple, the least perfect tone of the color scale.

In The Principles of Light and Color, Edwin D. Babbitt confirms the correspondence of the color and musical scales: “As C is at the bottom of the musical scale and made with the coarsest waves of air, so is red at the bottom of the chromatic scale and made with the coarsest waves of luminous ether. As the musical note B [the seventh note of the scale] requires 45 vibrations of air every time the note C at the lower end of the scale requires 24, or but little over half as many, so does extreme violet require about 300 trillions of vibrations of ether in a second, while extreme red requires only about 450 trillions, which also are but little more than half as many. When one musical octave is finished another one commences and progresses with just twice as many vibrations as were used in the first octave, and so the same notes are repeated on a finer scale. In the same way when the scale of colors visible to the ordinary eye is completed in the violet, another octave of finer invisible colors, with just twice as many vibrations, will commence and progress on precisely the same law.”

When the colors are related to the twelve signs of the zodiac, they are arranged as the spokes of a wheel. To Aries is assigned pure red; to Taurus, red-orange; to Gemini, pure orange; to Cancer, orange-yellow; to Leo, pure yellow; to Virgo, yellow-green; to Libra, pure green; to Scorpio, green-blue; to Sagittarius, pure blue; to Capricorn, blue-violet; to Aquarius, pure violet; and to Pisces, violet-red.

In expounding the Eastern system of esoteric philosophy, H. P, Blavatsky relates the colors to the septenary constitution of man and the seven states of matter as follows:





Chaya, or Etheric Double



Higher Manas, or Spiritual Intelligence

Critical State called Air


Auric Envelope

Steam or Vapor


Lower Manas, or Animal Soul

Critical State


Buddhi, or Spiritual Soul



Prana, or Life Principle

Critical State


Kama Rupa, or Seat of Animal Life



This arrangement of the colors of the spectrum and the musical notes of the octave necessitates a different grouping of the planets in order to preserve their proper tone and color analogies. Thus do becomes Mars; re, the sun;mi, Mercury; fa, Saturn; sol, Jupiter; la, Venus; si (ti) the moon. (See The E. S. Instructions.)

After 400 years, mathematicians find a new class of solid shapes

By Akshat Rathi, The Conversation

The work of the Greek polymath Plato has kept millions of people busy for millennia. A few among them have been mathematicians who have obsessed about Platonic solids, a class of geometric forms that are highly regular and are commonly found in nature.

Since Plato’s work, two other classes of equilateral convex polyhedra, as the collective of these shapes are called, have been found: Archimedean solids (including truncated icosahedron) and Kepler solids (including rhombic polyhedra). Nearly 400 years after the last class was described, researchers claim that they may have now invented a new, fourth class, which they call Goldberg polyhedra. Also, they believe that their rules show that an infinite number of such classes could exist.

Platonic love for geometry

Equilateral convex polyhedra need to have certain characteristics. First, each of the sides of the polyhedra needs to be of the same length. Second, the shape must be completely solid: that is, it must have a well-defined inside and outside that is separated by the shape itself. Third, any point on a line that connects two points in a shape must never fall outside the shape.

Platonic solids, the first class of such shapes, are well known. They consist of five different shapes: tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron. They have four, six, eight, twelve and twenty faces, respectively.

Platonic solids in ascending order of number of faces.

These highly regular structures are commonly found in nature. For instance, the carbon atoms in a diamond are arranged in a tetrahedral shape. Common salt and fool’s gold (iron sulfide) form cubic crystals, and calcium fluoride forms octahedral crystals.

The new discovery comes from researchers who were inspired by finding such interesting polyhedra in their own work that involved the human eye. Stan Schein at the University of California in Los Angeles was studying the retina of the eye when he became interested in the structure of protein called clathrin. Clathrin is involved in moving resources inside and outside cells, and in that process it forms only a handful number of shapes. These shapes intrigued Schein, who ended up coming up with a mathematical explanation for the phenomenon.

Goldberg polyhedron.


During this work, Schein came across the work of 20th century mathematician Michael Goldberg who described a set of new shapes, which have been named after him, as Goldberg polyhedra. The easiest Goldberg polyhedron to imagine looks like a blown-up football, as the shape is made of many pentagons and hexagons connected to each other in a symmetrical manner (see image to the left).

However, Schein believes that Goldberg’s shapes – or cages, as geometers call them – are not polyhedra. “It may be confusing because Goldberg called them polyhedra, a perfectly sensible name to a graph theorist, but to a geometer, polyhedra require planar faces,” Schein said.

Instead, in a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Schein and his colleague James Gayed have described that a fourth class of convex polyhedra, which given Goldberg’s influence they want to call Goldberg polyhedra, even at the cost of confusing others.

Blown up dodecahedron.

A crude way to describe Schein and Gayed’s work, according to David Craven at the University of Birmingham, “is to take a cube and blow it up like a balloon” – which would make its faces bulge (see image to the right). The point at which the new shapes breaks the third rule – which is, any point on a line that connects two points in that shape falls outside the shape – is what Schein and Gayed care about most.

Craven said, “There are two problems: the bulging of the faces, whether it creates a shape like a saddle, and how you turn those bulging faces into multi-faceted shapes. The first is relatively easy to solve. The second is the main problem. Here one can draw hexagons on the side of the bulge, but these hexagons won’t be flat. The question is whether you can push and pull all these hexagons around to make each and everyone of them flat.”

During the imagined bulging process, even one that involves replacing the bulge with multiple hexagons, as Craven points out, there will be formation of internal angles. These angles formed between lines of the same faces – referred to as dihedral angle discrepancies – means that, according to Schein and Gayed, the shape is no longer a polyhedron. Instead they claimed to have found a way of making those angles zero, which makes all the faces flat, and what is left is a true convex polyhedron (see image below).

Their rules, they claim, can be applied to develop other classes of convex polyhedra. These shapes will be with more and more faces, and in that sense there should be an infinite variety of them.

Playing with shapes

Such mathematical discoveries don’t have immediate applications, but often many are found. For example, dome-shaped buildings are never circular in shape. Instead they are built like half-cut Goldberg polyhedra, consisting of many regular shapes that give more strength to the structure than using round-shaped construction material.

Only the one in the right bottom corner is a convex polyhedra.
Stan Schein/PNAS

However, there may be some immediate applications. The new rules create polyhedra that have structures similar to viruses or fullerenes, a carbon allotrope. The fact that there has been no “cure” against influenza, or common flu, shows that stopping viruses is hard. But if we are able to describe the structure of a virus accurately, we get a step closer to finding a way of fighting them.

If nothing else, Schein’s work will invoke mathematicians to find other interesting geometric shapes, now that equilateral convex polyhedra may have been done with.

Update: The post was corrected to clarify that it refers to equilateral convex polyhedra.

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